Entries with tag refugees .

Trapped Between War and Nationalism: the Precarious Situation of Millions on the Move

 

Imagine you’re sitting at home on a peaceful Wednesday evening, relaxing after a long day at your medical practice. Your children are working on their homework and your husband grades his university students’ papers. Suddenly you hear bombs in the distance, perhaps 2-3 miles away. You recognize that sound; it’s the extremist group you hoped would never arrive at your doorstep. Not only your government but the world’s “great powers” said they wouldn’t let this happen. You’ve heard stories from neighboring villages of how they enslave the women and children, kill the men, and force the boys to fight – all coerced by violence and drugs. Convert or die! Join or be enslaved! If you don’t flee, these are your only choices. Pandemonium ensues as you and your family stuff backpacks with the bare minimum to survive and set out to escape what would otherwise be hell on earth. You drive your car as far as you can safely go and continue your journey on foot. Fear, which has motivated you all the while, drives you to spare no expense, paying smugglers and foregoing your dignity. Along the long journey, you and your family are extorted, threatened, and generally maltreated. Finally, after many months and great risks, you reach Greece. You collapse on the ground as humanitarian aid workers flock to your side. A few days of rest later, you begin the arduous process of seeking asylum – something international law has declared a given in your circumstance. But soon you realize that while you cannot stay in your own country for fear of death and slavery, you are also not welcome anywhere else in the world. The global citizen fears you. Though a very general and mild account, this picture is the reality described to me by those on the move.

Having a clear picture in your mind’s eye of what it is like for refugees, hopefully a little data and current international policy happenings will be easily consumed. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reports that nearly 100 million people – or 1.4% of the world’s population – are currently caught up in aforesaid situation. Therefore in September 2016, “[t]he UN General Assembly [convened] a high-level summit to address large movements of refugees and migrants, with the aim of bringing countries together behind a more humane and coordinated approach,” which resulted in the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants. The Declaration “contains bold commitments both to address the issues we face now and to prepare the world for future challenges.” The main take away is that the UN General Assembly has agreed to create two global compacts – common principles and approaches to a particular issue that all participants commit to implement: 1) the global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration and 2) the global compact on refugees. Both are to be adopted in 2018.

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America was involved in the negotiations for the New York Declaration and remains involved in the negotiations for the global compacts, advocating for the following:

Equal emphasis on bringing peace to the origin of mass migration by ending global conflicts, particularly manifest in the Middle East and Africa, as well as providing humanitarian aid to all those on the move indiscriminate of race, religion, or any other factors.

Asylum hearings in a timely manner and the granting of asylum to anyone fleeing from the persecution of war in accordance with Article 14.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which sates, “everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.”

Immediate and urgent provisions for the care of unaccompanied minor migrants and refugees, including but not limited to special housing, integrated education, pediatric healthcare, and reunification services.

Reallocation of resources, financial and otherwise, to countries and civil society organizations on the front lines of the refugee crisis.

But what does it all mean? Will this really have an impact? As with all international policy, global compacts are soft law which means there’s no mechanism to keep Member States accountable. In other words, adherence to the agreed principles and approaches is voluntary and, therefore, the success of the global compacts remains in the hands of each individual nation. Subsequently, in democratic countries, the outcome remains with each and every one of us. It is our responsibility and right to push our national, regional, and local governments to implement and adhere to the agreed terms of the global compact. When engaging in this way, the following are some points to keep in mind:

Before taking a position on the matter, reach out and befriend immigrants in your local neighborhood that began their journeys as refugees. As the late Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras often said, “come let us look one another in the eyes,” before engaging in “business” matters. In other words, it is important to develop relationships with people before attempting to influence laws that will affect their lives.

Thoroughly research the issue via primary and accredited academic sources. Unfortunately, most news sources today are polarized, reporting opinionated facts rather than pure facts. Therefore, they aren’t reliable sources of information.

Call and write your representatives – at the national, state, and local levels – encouraging them to propose legislation in line with international laws and standards regarding migrants and refugees. This will be particularly important in the fall of 2018 once the global compacts are finalized and ratified.

Finally, I’ll leave you with the encouragement of Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, Pope Francis, and Archbishop Ieronymos from their Joint Declaration at the Mòria Refugee Camp in Lesvos, Greece: “Together we solemnly plead for an end to war and violence in the Middle East, a just and lasting peace and the honourable return of those forced to abandon their homes. We ask religious communities to increase their efforts to receive, assist and protect refugees of all faiths, and that religious and civil relief services work to coordinate their initiatives.”

 

#refugeecrisis #refugees #PopeFrancis #EcumenicalPatriarchBartholomew #UN4RefugeesMigrants #UN4refugees #UN4migrants

 

Arduous Journeys Across Seas and Deserts

Let’s say you had to move away. Actually, let’s say you had to move far away—like, outside-of-your-country far away.

In this scenario, the economy has gotten so bad that nobody—not even the most skilled individuals—can find work anymore. If you want to live comfortably or even put food on your table, you’ll have to go elsewhere.

Or, you grew up in a low-income family, but you studied hard, defied all expectations and earned a spot at the best university in the world, located somewhere across the sea. This is an incredible opportunity that would forever change your life and that of your family.

Or, there’s violent civil war in your country. The most recent election was hotly contested and the military staged a coup in an attempt to retain power and maintain civil order, pitting faction against faction and neighbor against neighbor. There are bullet holes in your windows and the inside of your house is covered in dust and dirt from the constant artillery shelling in the city. There’s no more electricity and tap water, and several of your family members have already died.

So, what would you do in each of those situations? Would you actually leave?

Those are only a few of the many reasons people might choose to become migrants and leave their homes. Sometimes it’s a conscious choice to leave, and sometimes it’s not. Sometimes, the reason for leaving is positive and happy, and sometimes (more often, actually) the reason is not so optimistic.

Right now, at this very moment, there are more forcibly displaced people than there have been since World War II. Many are “refugees,” who were actually able to leave their country in search of new homes and communities where they can live and learn and work. Others are internally displaced, and aren’t able to reach safety outside of their homeland.

or people who didn’t really have a choice when it came to staying or leaving—who probably don’t want to leave but are now looking for new homes and communities where they can live and learn and work.

Tragically, many of them don’t ever reach asylum. Thousands die while trying to reach safety via dangerous land and sea routes just in the last few years.

If you did have to move away—far away—how would you want people to think about you? How would you want them to treat you?

The next time you hear about migrants or refugees in the news or in politics, think about the reality of the situation for these people and their actual lives. Should you welcome them into your community with open arms and understanding (like Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau famously did)?

Or, should you reject them on the basis of that they might be dangerous (which isn’t really true)?

In reality, it’s the migrants who have usually faced danger—leaving behind family, friends, relationships and any sense of normalcy to make their way across treacherous terrain in order to reach the border that promises safety.

Which means that migrants are some of the most courageous, resilient and resourceful people on the planet. They are more than people in need—they are people wanting to give and make a meaningful contribution to society.

After all, remember what the most famous refugee, Jesus Christ, went on to do.

International Migrants Day is on Dec. 18. The International Organization for Migration is calling on the international community to come together and remember the refugees and migrants who have lost their lives or have disappeared while trying to reach safe harbor after arduous journeys across seas and deserts.

Andrew Romanov is a Fellow at the U.N. for the Department of Inter-Orthodox, Ecumenical and Interfaith Relations of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (un.goarch.org).

The Archdiocese is an accredited Non-Governmental Organization at the United Nations through the Department of Public Information (UN DPI) and has General Consultative Status under the Economic and Social Council of the U.N. (ECOSOC). It has been actively working at the United Nations for 30 years.

 

Death by Snow: Syrian Refugees Face Struggle to Survive in Winter

Death by snow: it’s a reality that receives little attention in the international media, but for the more than 11 million Syrians living as either internally displaced persons (IDPs) inside the civil-war torn country or as refugees in neighboring states, the effects of winter weather make our extreme weather problems here in the US look like a winter wonderland.

Think about it.  Earlier this week, the US government shut down because of snow.  This past weekend, New England was hit by another blizzard.  The country’s southern states have been paralyzed by the shock of snowfalls.  Meteorologists are predicting the continuation of record extreme weather conditions for the rest of this month.  Through it all, the US news cycle reports that wet and heavy “heart-attack snow” has claimed many victims; hospital E.R.s have seen a spike in visits for treatment of grizzly frost bite symptoms; urban commuters have been trapped in subways stopped by frozen tracks and power outages; public school superintendents are scrambling to reschedule the rest of the academic year after the onslaught of snow days; and homeowners are struggling with freezing pipes and buckling roofs caused by ice dams. 

But we in America would do well to put our angst about winter into perspective.  In the words of a wise teenage whose maturity and compassion and humor bring daily joy to my life, “these are first world problems!”  She’s absolutely right.  The reality of winter for Syria’s IDPs and refugees is a daily struggle for survival against the winter elements.   Consider the following facts, simple and bleak.  Since Syria’s descent into civil war since 2011, the United Nations High Commission on Refugees has registered 2.2 million Syrian refugees in Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, and Jordan, and the government of Turkey has registered 1.5 million Syrian refugees.  Other neighboring countries in the Mideast and North Africa, as well as in Europe, have taken in an estimated 100,000 refugees from Syria, bringing the estimated total to 3.8 million refugees, with an additional 6.5 million Syrians living as internally displaced persons. 

Simply put, 50% of Syria’s population (more than 11 million out of 22 million) has been moved, either voluntarily or by force, because of the unending violence of civil war between supporters of the al-Assad regime and a motley coalition of opposition forces which have now been infiltrated and marginalized by the expanding terror footprint of The Islamic State (IS/ISIS).   As The Wall Street Journal reported early this year, Syria’s population shifts since 2011 would be the equivalent of “more than 160 million Americans either fleeing the U.S. or moving to other cities or states because of fighting in their neighborhoods.”  

Imagine our extreme weather conditions of the last few weeks against that sort of backdrop, and you have a sense of the winter nightmare being endured by Syrians.  During the months of January and February, winter conditions, including blizzards, rains, heavy winds, and freezing temperatures, have swept Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Turkey, Israel and the Palestinian Territories.  Indeed, winter struck just after international humanitarian providers raised the alarm about the humanitarian consequences of impending snows in the Mideast.  At the end of 2014, the World Food Program (WFP) announced that flagging donor support was forcing the suspension of the WFP’s food voucher program, a cut that would terminate the ability of  1.7 million Syrian refugees in Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, and Turkey to buy food in shops; the United Nations agency emphasized that the suspension of the food voucher program would be disastrous for Syrian refugees and IDPs already at risk of perishing from malnutrition and lack of regular access to clean drinking water. 

According to the Syrian Refugees Inter-Agency Report for February 2015, prior to the cold snap that’s spread across the Levant, 38% of Syrian refugees were already living in sub-standard conditions which aid agencies have described as deplorable, despicable, and inhuman.  The UN reported its preference for relocation of refugees affected by winter weather, but yet again, lack of funds has made this impossible.  Syrian refugees and IDPS struggle in plastic tents with no heat and intermittent electricity.  The majority of tents are not weatherized, much less winterized, so snow and rain and wind have meant that tents collapse, camps flood, and people freeze to death.  Relief workers report that small children are either barefoot or wearing summer flip-flops in freezing temperatures.  Standard-issue plastic sheeting provides no protection, and the need for blankets and heating stoves is at critical levels.  The UN has moved urgently to distribute blankets, as well as stoves and gas cylinders for heat, but these goods are in short supply and can’t meet the needs of the full refugee populations. 

The terrible conditions in formal refugee camps organized by international aid agencies are worse still in the plethora of informal refugee settlements in which many Syrians have gathered.  For example, Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley has almost 900 informal refugee settlements, where tens of thousands of Syrians congregate unsheltered, in sheds and on farmland and in vacant lots.  The Lebanese Red Cross reported only recently that Syrians fleeing across the border into Lebanon have frozen to death on the trek, with a seven-year old boy and a shepherd, and a 10-year-old girl, the latest recovered victims of wartime winter.   The plight of Syrian IDPs is even worse.  Hundreds of thousands of Syrian IDPs live in unfinished buildings and garages, and on exposed mountainsides.  In the absence of core relief services, such as physical shelter, regular access to food and water and basic medical care, and functioning sewage systems, the most vulnerable populations (children, women, the elderly, and the disabled and emotionally traumatized) are at grave risk of perishing in winter. 

Meanwhile, here in the US, a quick look today at the short-term forecast by the National Weather Service shows that we’re in for more ice, snow, and frigid temperatures in huge swaths of the country.  But let’s remember, our battles with weather are first-world struggles.  For Syria’s millions of refugees and IDPs, the weather forecast is a matter of life and death.  Let’s try to take action, by offering time and treasure to humanitarian organizations and relief agencies that can make sure that death by snow is not added to the daily suffering, degradation, and despair that now define the lives of so many of Syria’s people.

Dr. Elizabeth H. Prodromou is Visiting Associate Professor of Conflict Resolution at The Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy at Tufts University, and Affiliate Scholar at Harvard University's Center for European Studies, where she Co-Chairs the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe Study Group.

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